A burn-in method is a testing and quality control process used to identify and eliminate defective electronic components before they are sold or integrated into larger systems.
In Burn-in Test Principles, Examples of Semiconductor Devices Most semiconductor devices are at risk of premature failure or failure, which shortens their chip lifetime. Burn-in testing can be used to determine the reliability of components at this critical early stage and to ensure that the circuit enters a more efficient long-term phase of its life.
Types of Burn-in Procedures A standard burn-in test system consists of a series of sockets that bridge the temporary electrical connection between the burn-in board and the device under test. A typical burn-in board may contain as many as fifty slots, and a burn-in system may contain dozens of such boards. Effective burn-in system performance depends on a thorough understanding of the temperature distribution in the burn-in board, test equipment, and burn-in oven. Common aging test systems include:
Static Aging: Under this type of system, the test equipment is mounted to the socket on the burn-in board, which is then placed in a burn-in oven where power and high temperature are applied at intervals of twelve to twenty-four hours. After cooling, the board is removed and the device is subjected to a series of functional tests. External biasing or loading does not create stress, but static aging methods are less effective for evaluating complex devices due to the lack of electrical input.
Dynamic Aging: In a dynamic aging system, devices are tested at the maximum rate set by the aging rate.
Chemical testing is one way to improve and reduce early failure rates. Latent defects in semiconductors can be detected by burn-in testing. Latent defects become prominent when the device is subjected to voltage stress and heating and begins to operate. Most early failures are due to the use of defective manufacturing materials and errors encountered during the production phase. By performing burn-in tests, only components with a low early failure rate are released to the market.